Bread Making Equipment


Food Processor

The following is excerpted from New Recipes for the CUSINART FOOD PROCESSOR, by James Beard and Carl Jerome:

  • Before you use the food processor for bread making the first time, consider these rules.

    Proofing the Yeast

    If using dry yeast, measure warm (105 to 115 degrees) water into a measuring cup. If you don't have a thermometer, mix equal amounts of boiling water and ice water. Add the yeast to the warm liquid. When using fresh yeast, the temperature should be 90 to 95 degrees.

    Measuring the Flour

    Don't sift the flour or spoon it into a cup. Just scoop the flour directly from the package or container with a dry measuring cup and level it off with a spatula or straight-sided knife. Be sure not to heap or shake it.

    Mixing in the Processor

    Be careful, if too much liquid is added to the beaker of the processor, the motor slows down, overheats and shuts itself off. Be cautious with liquids - you may not need the entire amount and at times you may need more. If you do - dribble it in slowly, stopping as soon as a ball of dough forms on top of the processor blade.

    Kneading

    On a lightly floured board, flatten the dough slightly with floured hands or hand. Push the dough away from you with the heels of your hands. Fold and rotate the dough a quarter turn. Repeat folding, pushing, turning, until the dough is elastic.

  • The following procedure is adapted and modified from the food processor method described in The Way To Cook, by Julia Child.

    Procedure:

    Sprinkle the yeast over tepid water and let stand for about 5 minutes.

    Combine the flour and salt and place this mixture in the bowl of the food processor fitted with the plastic or metal blade. Place the cover on the food processor.

    Stir the yeast, to be sure it has thoroughly dissolved. Blend the dissolved yeast with additional water called for in the recipe and set this mixture aside. Use cold water, since the food processor generates heat as it operates. It is recommended that some water be held back to use to compensate for environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, etc.

    Start the machine. With the machine running, slowly pour the yeast mixture through the feed tube. If the dough does not form into a ball in a few seconds, pour in a little more water, adding small amounts in intervals until the dough balls on top of the processor blade.

    Stop the machine, remove the cover, and feel the dough. If the dough feels too stiff or dry, return the cover, slowly add small amounts of water, and let the ball rotate several times.

    Let the dough rest for 5 minutes. This rest allows the flour to absorb the liquid and facilitates the kneading process.

    Restart the machine and let the dough rotate 20 - 30 times. Care should be taken not to overwork the dough since the machine can overheat the dough and break down the gluten. This occurs less when using a plastic rather than a steel blade. When in doubt, stop the machine, remove the cover, and feel the dough. If the dough feels warmer than room temperature let it rest and cool before continuing.

    Remove the dough, place it on a lightly floured work surface, and finish kneading by hand.


    Electric Mixers

    The following is excerpted from Beard on Bread, by James Beard:

    Some heavy-duty electric mixers come equipped with a dough hook that transforms them into kneading machines. They are quick, they save muscle, and they are efficient. You can use an electric mixer from the very start, after the yeast is dissolved, to stir in the flour and the Liquids, and then, with the aid of the dough hook, to do the kneading. The dough hook will do a faster, more thorough job than you can do by hand. It is best to consult the recipe book that accompanies your mixer for suggested kneading times, although. The experienced breadmaker can soon judge for himself, and if there is a little less or a little more kneading done than required, it does not matter.

    I have used the electric mixer a great deal, but never for the entire kneading procedure. I rather enjoy taking the dough from the mixer and finishing it off by hand. It seems to me that it gives the bread a better texture, but this may be my imagination. I have many friends who would not dream of kneading by hand any longer now that they have a dough hook. The choice is up to you. If you enjoy the relaxing exercise of kneading and breaking down the mixture into a smooth, elastic dough, then the machine will never make up for that pleasure. It is however, a great innovation and an undeniable time saver.

    If the dough hook is operated according to the manufacturer’s instructions, it can be used to prepare any of the yeast breads.


    Krups PowerMix Prometal

    The following is adapted and modified from the Krups PowerMix Prometal Instructions for Use:

    Helpful Hints

    Procedure

    Place warm water in the mixing bowl, sprinkle the yeast over the water, and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Stir the yeast, to be sure it has thoroughly dissolved. Add additional water called for in the recipe. It is recommended that some water be held back to use to compensate for environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, etc.

    Place the flour in the mixing bowl. Turn the mixer on to Speed (1) for approximately 45 seconds, or until blended. Increase to Speed (2) and mix for 5 minutes.

    Stop the machine, and feel the dough. If the dough feels too stiff or dry, slowly add small amounts of water, and continue on Speed 2 until the dough is the desired consistency.

    Let the dough rest for 5 minutes. This rest allows the flour to absorb the liquid and facilitates the kneading process.  Stopping the mixer for a rest helps assure that it won't overheat.

    Add the salt to the mixing bowl, restart the machine on Speed (2), and mix for 3 minutes longer. Care should be taken not to overwork the dough.

    Remove the dough, place it on a lightly floured work surface, and finish kneading by hand.


    KitchenAid

    The following is excerpted from the KitchenAid Electric Housewares recipes instructions for the KitchenAid K5A food preparer.

    Bread Doughs Differ

    Some few types of doughs, especially some wholegrain recipes, may not cling to the hook. As long as the hook comes in contact with the dough, kneading will be accomplished. Some large recipes and soft doughs may occasionally climb over the collar of the hook. The sooner you add all the flour, the less likely the dough is to climb the hook.

    The following procedures were developed using the instruction manual referred to above, and information obtained from the KitchenAid Consumer Satisfaction Center. They apply to both the original dough hook, as shown on the left below, and  to the new dough hook on the right.   The new dough hook was designed with more of a curve to allow it to mix and knead the ingredients more efficiently in less time.   The images below show a  the changes made to the dough hook.

    Original Dough Hook New Dough Hook
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    Procedure

    Place warm water in the mixing bowl, sprinkle the yeast over the water, and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Stir the yeast, to be sure it has thoroughly dissolved. Add additional water called for in the recipe. It is recommended that some water be held back to use to compensate for environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, etc.

    Place the flour in the mixing bowl. Attach the bowl and dough hook. Turn the mixer on to Speed (2) and mix until well-blended, about 2 minutes. Stop the machine, and feel the dough. If the dough feels too stiff or dry, slowly add small amounts of water, and continue on Speed 2 until the dough is the desired consistency. Add the salt to the mixing bowl during the final stage of kneading. Care should be taken not to overwork the dough.

    Remove the dough, place it on a lightly floured work surface, and finish kneading by hand.

    Note: The KitchenAid Consumer Satisfaction Center suggests kneading bread dough on Speed (2). Both the original non-solid state and newer solid state KitchenAids are designed to take the stress of kneading bread dough on Speed (2). To set the speed higher runs the risk of stripping the worm gear. In the original non-solid state machine, the KitchenAid motor may also be damaged in the case of worm gear failure.  Worm gear failure in the solid state KitchenAid mixer would not necessarily result in damage to the motor, but only replacement of the plastic gear....a much less expensive proposition.  


    Magic Mill DLX Assistent

    The following is adapted and modified from the Magic Mill DLX Assistent Instructions and information obtained from Magic Mill International Headquarters.

    For Best Results

    The Magic Mill DLX Assistent can knead up to 7 lbs. of flour. For best results, add liquid first, then add flour and other dry ingredients into the bowl. Set the speed control to the two o'clock position, and add the rest of the flour. Continue mixing until the dough has the smooth elastic quality that pulls away from the side of the bowl. While kneading, maintain the speed control in the two o'clock position and let the DLX Assistent do its work. Do not move speed up, it will not hasten the process or make it better.*

    It is recommended that some liquid be held back to use to compensate for environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, etc. If the dough feels too stiff or dry, small amounts of liquid can be added slowly.

    Accessories for Preparing Bread Dough

    The Roller and Scraper are designed to produce high quality bread dough for both small and large batches of bread. The roller and scraper can be used for batches of up to 23 cups (7lbs.) of flour producing 15 lbs. of dough. As the roller beats the mixture, the scraper pushes the ingredients into the path of the roller, assuring a more thorough mix.

    For those who prefer using a Dough Hook, one is available as an optional piece of equipment. The Dough Hook is also used with the Scraper. The Dough Hook is designed for wheat bread dough and other bread dough of up to 23 cups (7 1/2 lbs.) of flour or 15 lbs. of dough.

    The Roller and Scraper

    Attaching the Roller and Scraper

    Insert the Scraper into the attachment hole. The Scraper should not touch the bottom of the bowl. If it does, adjust the screw found in the attachment hole with a Phillips screwdriver.

    Place the Roller inside of the bowl and attach it to the arm by swinging the arm towards the center of the bowl. Place the Roller under the arm and push the locking pin into it.

    For 5 cups of flour, the roller should be approximately 1/2" from the rim of the bowl. For 8 cups of flour, the roller should be approximately 1" from the rim. For 5 lbs. of flour, the roller should be approximately 1 1/2" from the rim of the bowl. For 6 lbs. of flour, the roller should be approximately 2 inches from the rim.

    Procedure for the Roller and Scraper

    With bowl mounted and Roller and Scraper attached, move the Roller away from the rim of the bowl and secure by tightening the locking screw. Place warm water in the mixing bowl, sprinkle the yeast over the water, and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Stir the yeast, to be sure it has thoroughly dissolved. Add the additional liquid(s) called for in the recipe.

    Place 2/3 of the flour called for in the recipe in the mixing bowl. Set the speed control to the two o'clock position. Jog the ON/OFF switch a few times. The arm and roller can be moved back and forth at any time to help mix all the ingredients. When the ingredients are well mixed, slowly add the remaining flour between the edge of the bowl and the scraper. Continue with the speed control set to the two o'clock position, adding the salt toward the end of the process. Care should be taken not to overwork the dough.

    Remove the dough, place it on a lightly floured work surface, and finish kneading by hand.

    Dough Hook and Scraper

    Attaching the Dough Hook

    The Dough Hook is used with the Scraper. It is normal for the Dough Hook to move back and forth slightly.

    Attach the Dough Hook on to the attachment point. Insert the Scraper into the attachment hole. The Dough Hook and Scraper should not touch the bottom of the bowl. If one or both do, adjust the screw found in the attachment hole with a Phillips screwdriver.

    Lock the Dough Hook in place with the locking pin. For recipes using over 5 lbs. of flour, move the Dough Hook to the middle of the bowl and tighten the locking screw. For recipes using less than 5 lbs., move Dough Hook back from middle of the bowl approximately 1" for best results. The end of the Dough Hook should never touch the side of the bowl.

    After a few minutes, it may seem that the dough is standing still in a few places and not kneading thoroughly. Do not worry, if all of the liquid has been added, the dough will start moving. The DLX Assistent has been engineered with a unique kneading system; the Dough Hook remains stationary, while the bowl turns. The bottom of the dough is continually being kneaded keeping the gluten fibers long and intact. This results in a superior dough.

    It is normal for the dough to climb up and onto the Dough Hook.

    Procedure for the Dough Hook and Scraper

    With bowl mounted and Dough Hook and Scraper attached, move the roller away from the rim of the bowl and secure by tightening the knob. Place warm water in the mixing bowl, sprinkle the yeast over the water, and allow to stand for 5 minutes. Stir the yeast, to be sure it has thoroughly dissolved. Add additional liquid(s) called for in the recipe.

    Place 2/3 of the flour called for in the recipe in the mixing bowl. Set the speed control to the two o'clock position. When the ingredients are well mixed, slowly add the remaining flour toward the edge of the bowl near the scraper. Continue with the speed control set to the two o'clock position, adding the salt toward the end of the process. Care should be taken not to overwork the dough.

    Remove the dough, place it on a lightly floured work surface, and finish kneading by hand.

    * Magic Mill International Headquarters suggests operating the mixer at medium high speed (the four to five o'clock position). Set the speed control to low speed. Gradually increase the speed to medium high until the ingredients are well mixed. Slowly add the remaining flour and continue as described above.


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    Last updated on: 06/22/99 07:23:52 PM